a. A desire to belong: KIPP schools (see Chapter 7 of Talent Code) have a very
concrete and explicit culture; they clearly communicate to students that being a "KIPPster" means doing certain things. It becomes a learning club of sorts, a club that students long to feel a part of. This desire for belonging can be tremendously motivating (I think we see this same principle at work in a destructive way among gangs and terrorist groups).
b. A vision of what one can become: When a young student can see what they are working towards (for KIPP students this is enrollment in college) they also see how their efforts are connected to a future goal. A Talent Code school will use images and language that help to create this picture for its learners. Keeping alumni connected to the school and inviting them to return to interact with students seems critical here. When a student sees someone that was once "like them" and became something great, they start to see and believe in what they can become (see Coyle's discussion of the Curacaoan little league teams for an example of this principle at work; Chapter 6).
c. Connection to personal interests and goals: A Talent Code school will provide students with choice in what and how they learn. This will be messy, but it is allowed because it leads to better learning.